Identity and constraints -in- Pre Islamic civilization

The Solar disk of Ahura Mazdā

The speeches of the kings in Ferdowsī revolved around some basic fundamental ideas: first of all, the praise to Ahura Mazdā, who descends from royalty; then the promise to be fair in the exercise of government; the encouragement to the good and poor people; and the threat to the enemy. Justice, philanthropy, and freedom from the monarch were publicly demonstrated on the occasion of nowrūz, when a “court of justice” was set up. It gave free access of the court to even the most humble of subjects who wanted to complain of wrongdoings. The auctioneer asked for anyone with complaints to come forth from the crowd, and the king and the plaintiff, on their knees, gave the verdict of the great mowbed (non capisco questa parola). If the king was found guilty or missing in something, he was required to repair the wrong, but in the contrary case, the plaintiff was severely punished and imprisoned. In cases where the plaintiff won, gifts of money and food were offered to the people.